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establish and maintain a predictable daily schedule, respond to your baby's needs and try to reinforce your baby's natural habits.
From birth, babies follow their internal hunger and fullness cues. They eat when they're hungry and stop eating when they're full. Experts agree that newborns should be fed on demand. This means that you breast- or bottle-feed your infant whenever he or she shows signs of hunger, rather than setting a strict schedule.
How often your baby needs to eat will depend on your baby's age and how hungry he or she is at that moment. As your newborn grows, you can try these tips:
At age 3 to 4 months, babies become more and more interested in the world
around them. Babies often
interrupt feedings by looking around, smiling, cooing, and reaching for a
parent's face. This is a normal attempt to turn feeding times into a more
social event and an opportune time for parents to interact with their babies.
At about 6 months, most babies can start to eat solid foods. This complements breast milk or formula. Try to be patient as your baby experiments and learns new eating skills like chewing and using cups and utensils.
For more information about feeding, see the topics Breast-Feeding, Bottle-Feeding, and Weaning. Follow your doctor's advice on when and what to feed your baby.
You may be surprised at the number of diapers your newborn goes
through every day. It's important to change your baby's diaper, because urine and stool can irritate your baby's skin.
Paying attention to your newborn's wet and soiled diapers can also give you clues about your baby's health.
The number of diapers a newborn wets is sometimes hard to
know, because disposable diapers work so well to wick moisture. In
general, though, your newborn should have about 3 wet diapers a day for the first few days. After that, your baby should have at least 6 wet
diapers a day throughout the first month of life. The urine should be yellow in color. Don't be alarmed, though, if you notice a pink color to the urine during your newborn's first 3 days of life. It is common for newborns to pass crystals in the urine (highly concentrated urine) which makes the urine look pink. If the pink color lasts, or if at any time your baby seems to be in pain while urinating, call your doctor.
Your newborn's stools usually will change from black to green in the first few days. Then they will change to yellow or yellowish brown by the end of the first week. Breast-fed
babies typically have more yellowish stools than formula-fed
babies. They also tend to have stools more often. Many newborns have at least 1 or 2 bowel movements a day. By the end of the first week, your baby may have as many as 5 to 10 a day. For more information about stools and when to call the doctor, see Bowel Movements in Babies.
Call your doctor if your baby does not regularly produce wet or soiled diapers and
shows other signs of
dehydration, such as strong-smelling urine that is a
dark yellow color.
A newborn moves between sleeping and waking during a 24-hour day. Most newborns sleep for a total of 18 hours each day, waking for short periods at
least every 2 to 3 hours. When your newborn wakes up, he or she will usually be
hungry and need to be fed. This pattern dominates your baby's first few weeks.
Sleeping patterns vary with each child and gradually evolve over the
first year. Sleep habits are influenced by the baby's temperament and feeling
of being well fed and the parents' response to waking episodes. Some babies
naturally seem to need more sleep than others.
Periods of murmuring and restlessness every 50 to 60 minutes are a normal part of the baby sleep cycle. These periods are known as "active sleep." The restlessness
usually lasts a few minutes, and if babies are left alone, they usually fall
back to sleep.
The sleep cycles include:
At first, babies often sleep through loud noises. But at about 3 to
4 months of age many babies become easily disturbed by noises like the phone
ringing or a dog barking.
During a baby's first few months, maturing of the brain allows the baby gradually to sleep for
longer periods. By age 3 months, most babies sleep for their
longest period (up to 7 to 8 hours) during the night and develop set nap
times. They are also more alert when
awake and you can gradually add time between feedings. At about 3 to 4 months, start bedtime rituals to help your baby
relax. Read a story, play quiet music, sing, rock your baby, or give him or her
a gentle massage. Avoid loud music or sounds and bright lights.
Sleep patterns often change during the second half of the first
year. By 9 months of age and into the second year of life, it can be hard for some babies to let go of the excitement of the day. Also at this age, many babies want to exert control over their actions. Because of these things, your baby may resist going to sleep at the times you want. To promote a regular schedule, stay with your routines when your baby
resists going down for a nap or going to bed at the usual time.
Somewhere between 12 and 24 months of age, your toddler will likely
resist a morning nap and want to rest only in the afternoon. Your child's
attempt to switch to one nap a day often occurs at about 18 months of age. Many
doctors recommend keeping both naps as long as possible for both the child's and
the parents' benefit.
When your child resists taking a nap, you can try
blocking out time in the afternoon for a quiet period. Even if your child
doesn't sleep, he or she usually still needs a restful break.
A toddler's excitement about learning to walk and about his or her emerging
independence can sometimes also disrupt afternoon nap schedules. Toddlers often
are more eager to practice new skills than to sleep. You may want to try some
of the following tips to help your child get needed rest:
Current as of:
December 6, 2013
Susan C. Kim, MD - Pediatrics & John Pope, MD - Pediatrics
How this information was developed to help you make better health decisions.
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