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Fortunately, cancer in children and adolescents is rare, although the overall incidence of childhood cancer has been slowly increasing since 1975. Children and adolescents with cancer should be referred to medical centers that have a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists with experience treating the cancers that occur during childhood and adolescence. This multidisciplinary team approach incorporates the skills of the following health care professionals and others to ensure that children receive treatment, supportive care, and rehabilitation that will achieve optimal survival and quality of life:
(Refer to the PDQ Supportive and Palliative Care summaries for specific information about supportive care for children and adolescents with cancer.)
Guidelines for pediatric cancer centers and their role in the treatment of children with cancer have been outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics. At these pediatric cancer centers, clinical trials are available for most of the types of cancer that occur in children and adolescents, and the opportunity to participate in these trials is offered to most patients/families. Clinical trials for children and adolescents with cancer are generally designed to compare therapy that is accepted as the best currently available therapy (standard therapy) with potentially better therapy. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapies for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI website.
Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%. For non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the 5-year survival rate has increased over the same time period from 45% to 87% in children younger than 15 years and from 48% to 82% for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close follow-up because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on the Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.)
On the basis of immunophenotype, molecular biology, and clinical response to treatment, the vast majority of NHL cases occurring in childhood and adolescence fall into three categories:
Other rare types of pediatric NHL include the following:
Lymphoma (Hodgkin lymphoma and NHL) is the third most common childhood malignancy, and NHL accounts for approximately 7% of cancers in children younger than 20 years in high-income countries.[3,4]
The following factors affect the incidence of NHL in children and adolescents:
In sub-Saharan Africa, the high incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia is tenfold to twentyfold higher, resulting in a much higher incidence of NHL.
Relatively little data have been published on the epidemiology of childhood NHL. However, known risk factors include the following:
Unlike adults with NHL who most often present with nodal disease, children typically have extranodal disease involving the mediastinum, abdomen, and/or head and neck, as well as marrow or CNS. For example, in developed countries, Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia occurs in the abdomen (approximately 60% of cases), with 15% to 20% of cases arising in the head and neck.[11,12] This high incidence of extranodal disease substantiates use of the Murphy staging system for pediatric NHL, as opposed to the Ann Arbor staging system.
The following tests and procedures are used to diagnose childhood NHL:
Prognosis and Prognostic Factors for Childhood NHL
In high-income countries and with current treatments, more than 80% of children and adolescents with NHL will survive at least 5 years, although outcome is variable depending on a number of factors, including clinical stage and histology.
Prognostic factors for childhood NHL include the following:
Response to therapy
Response to therapy in pediatric lymphoma is one of the most important prognostic markers. Regardless of histology, pediatric NHL that is refractory to first-line therapy has a very poor prognosis.[14,15,16]
International pediatric NHL response criteria have been proposed and require prospective evaluation. However, the clinical utility of these new criteria are under clinical investigation.
As opposed to acute leukemia, the prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) following initiation of the therapy in pediatric NHL remains uncertain and requires further investigation.
Stage at diagnosis/minimal disseminated disease (MDD)
In general, patients with low-stage disease (i.e., single extra-abdominal/extrathoracic tumor or totally resected intra-abdominal tumor) have an excellent prognosis (a 5-year survival rate of approximately 90%), regardless of histology.[17,19,25,26,27,28] Apart from this, the outcome by clinical stage, if the correct therapy is given, does not differ significantly, except for stage IV patients with CNS disease.
A surrogate for tumor burden (i.e., elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) has been shown to be prognostic in many studies.[17,26,29,30]
MDD is generally defined as submicroscopic bone marrow involvement that is present at diagnosis. MDD is generally detected by sensitive methods such as flow cytometry or reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Patients with morphologically involved bone marrow with more than 5% lymphoma cells are considered to have stage IV disease.
The presence of MDD is significantly associated with uncommon histologic subtypes containing small cell and/or lymphohistiocytic components.
Sites of disease at diagnosis
In pediatric NHL, some sites of disease appear to have prognostic value, including the following:
For pediatric Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia patients, secondary cytogenetic abnormalities, other than c-myc rearrangement, are associated with an inferior outcome,[44,45] and cytogenetic abnormalities involving gain of 7q or deletion of 13q appeared to have an inferior outcome on the FAB 96 chemotherapy protocol.[45,46] For pediatric patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and chromosomal rearrangement at MYC (8q24), outcome appears to be worse.
A subset of pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases were found to have a translocation that juxtaposes the IRF4 oncogene next to one of the immunoglobulin loci and has been associated with favorable prognosis compared with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases lacking this finding.
In the COG-ANHL0131 (NCT00059839) study, despite a different chemotherapy backbone, the small cell variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, as well as other histologic variants, had a significantly increased risk for failure.
NHL in infants is rare (1% in BFM trials from 1986 to 2002). In this retrospective review, the outcome for infants was inferior compared with the outcome for older patients with NHL.
Adolescents have been reported to have inferior outcome compared with younger children.[11,13,54,55] This adverse effect of age appears to be most pronounced for adolescents with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and to a lesser degree T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, compared with younger children with these diagnoses.[13,55] On the other hand, for patients with Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia on the FAB LMB 96 (COG-C5961) clinical trial, adolescent age (≥15 years) was not an independent risk factor for inferior outcome.
Immune response to tumor
An immune response against the ALK protein (i.e., anti-ALK antibody titer) appeared to correlate with lower clinical stage and predicted relapse risk but not OS. A study by the EICNHL, which combined the level of anti-ALK antibody with MDD, demonstrated that newly diagnosed anaplastic large cell lymphoma patients could be reliably stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and all remaining patients), with a PFS of 28%, 68% and 93%, respectively (P < .0001).
In children, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is distinct from the more common forms of lymphoma observed in adults. While lymphomas in adults are more commonly low or intermediate grade, almost all NHL that occurs in children is high grade.[1,2,3] The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies NHL according to the following features:
Based on the WHO classification, the vast majority of NHL cases in childhood and adolescence fall into the following three categories:
Refer to the following sections of this summary for more information about the tumor biology associated with each type of NHL:
WHO Classification for NHL
The WHO classification is the most widely used NHL classification and is shown in Table 2, with immunophenotype and common clinical and molecular findings in pediatric NHL.[1,2]
Other types of lymphoma, such as the nonanaplastic large cell peripheral T-cell lymphomas (including T/NK lymphomas), cutaneous lymphomas, and indolent B-cell lymphomas (e.g., follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma), are more commonly seen in adults and occur rarely in children. The most recent WHO classification has designated pediatric follicular lymphoma and pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma as distinct entities from the counterparts observed in adults.
Refer to the following PDQ summaries for more information about the treatment of NHL in adult patients:
The Ann Arbor staging system is used for all lymphomas in adults and for Hodgkin lymphoma in pediatrics. However, the Ann Arbor staging system has less prognostic value in pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), primarily because of the high incidence of extranodal disease. Therefore, the most widely used staging schema for childhood NHL is that of the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (Murphy Staging). A new staging system defines bone marrow and central nervous system (CNS) involvement using modern techniques to document the presence of malignant cells. However, the basic definitions of bone marrow and CNS disease are essentially the same. The clinical utility of this new staging system is under investigation.
Role of Radiographic Imaging in Childhood NHL
Radiographic imaging is essential in the staging of patients with NHL. Ultrasound may be the preferred method for assessment of an abdominal mass, but computed tomography (CT) scan and, more recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for staging. Radionuclide bone scans may be considered for patients in whom bone involvement is suspected.
The role of functional imaging in pediatric NHL is controversial. Gallium scans have been replaced by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, which is now routinely performed at many centers. A review of the revised International Workshop Criteria comparing CT imaging alone or CT together with PET imaging demonstrated that the combination of CT and PET imaging was more accurate than CT imaging alone.[4,5]
While the International Harmonization Project for PET (now called the International Working Group) response criteria have been attempted in adults, the prognostic value of PET scanning for staging pediatric NHL remains under investigation.[3,6,7] Data support that PET identifies more abnormalities than CT scanning, but it is unclear whether this should be used to upstage pediatric patients and change therapy. The International Working Group has updated their response criteria for malignant lymphoma to include PET, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry data.[5,9]
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (Murphy) Staging
Stage I childhood NHL
In stage I childhood NHL, a single tumor or nodal area is involved, excluding the abdomen and mediastinum.
Stage II childhood NHL
In stage II childhood NHL, disease extent is limited to a single tumor with regional node involvement, two or more tumors or nodal areas involved on one side of the diaphragm, or a primary gastrointestinal tract tumor (completely resected) with or without regional node involvement.
Stage III childhood NHL
In stage III childhood NHL, tumors or involved lymph node areas occur on both sides of the diaphragm. Stage III NHL also includes any primary intrathoracic (mediastinal, pleural, or thymic) disease, extensive primary intra-abdominal disease, or any paraspinal or epidural tumors.
Stage IV childhood NHL
In stage IV childhood NHL, tumors involve bone marrow and/or CNS, regardless of other sites of involvement.
Bone marrow involvement has been defined as 5% malignant cells in an otherwise normal bone marrow, with normal peripheral blood counts and smears. Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma who have more than 25% malignant cells in the bone marrow are usually considered to have leukemia and may be appropriately treated on leukemia clinical trials.
CNS disease in lymphoblastic lymphoma is defined by criteria similar to that used for acute lymphocytic leukemia (i.e., white blood cell count of at least 5/μL and malignant cells in the cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]). For other types of NHL, the definition of CNS disease is any malignant cell present in the CSF regardless of cell count. The Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster group analyzed the prevalence of CNS involvement in NHL in over 2,500 patients. Overall, CNS involvement was diagnosed in 6% of patients. CNS involvement (percentage of patients) according to NHL subtype was as follows:
Many of the improvements in childhood cancer survival have been made using combinations of known and/or new agents that have attempted to improve the best available, accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new treatment and comparing the results with those previously obtained with standard therapy.
All children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) should be considered for entry into a clinical trial. Treatment planning by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists with experience treating tumors of childhood is strongly recommended to determine, coordinate, and implement treatment to achieve optimal survival. Children with NHL should be referred for treatment by a multidisciplinary team of pediatric oncologists at an institution with experience in treating pediatric cancers. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI website.
NHL in children is generally considered to be widely disseminated at diagnosis, even when the tumor is apparently localized; as a result, combination chemotherapy is recommended for most patients. Exceptions to this treatment strategy include the following:
In contrast to the treatment of adults with NHL, the use of radiation therapy is limited in children with NHL. Study results include the following:
Radiation therapy may have a role in treating patients who have not had a complete response to chemotherapy. Data to support limiting the use of radiation therapy in pediatric NHL come from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. This analysis demonstrated that radiation was a significant risk factor for subsequent neoplasms and death in long-term survivors.
Treatment of NHL in childhood and adolescence has historically been based on histologic subtype of the disease. A study by the Children's Cancer Group demonstrated that the outcome for lymphoblastic lymphoma was superior with longer acute lymphoblastic leukemia–like therapy, while nonlymphoblastic NHL (Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia) had superior outcome with short, intensive, pulsed therapy, whereas the large cell lymphoma outcome was similar with either approach.
Outcome for recurrent NHL in children and adolescents remains very poor, with the exception of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.[9,10,11,12,13] All patients with primary refractory or relapsed NHL should be considered for clinical trials.
The most common potentially life-threatening clinical situations, most often seen in lymphoblastic lymphoma and Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia, are the following:
Patients with large mediastinal masses are at risk for tracheal compression, superior vena caval compression, large pleural and pericardial effusions, and right and left ventricular outflow compression. Thus, cardiac or respiratory arrest is a significant risk, particularly if the patient is placed in a supine position.
Because of the risks of general anesthesia or heavy sedation, a careful physiologic and radiographic evaluation of the patient should be completed, and the least invasive procedure should be used to establish the diagnosis of lymphoma.[15,16] The following procedures may be used:
In situations when the above procedures do not yield a diagnosis, use of a computed tomography (CT)-guided core-needle biopsy should be considered. This procedure can frequently be performed using light sedation and local anesthesia before proceeding to more invasive procedures. Care should be taken to keep patients out of a supine position. Most procedures, including CT scans and echocardiograms, can be done with the patient on his or her side or prone. Mediastinoscopy, anterior mediastinotomy, or thoracoscopy are the procedures of choice when other diagnostic modalities fail to establish the diagnosis. A formal thoracotomy is rarely, if ever, indicated for the diagnosis or treatment of childhood lymphoma.
Occasionally, it will not be possible to perform a diagnostic operative procedure because of the risk of general anesthesia or heavy sedation. In these situations, preoperative treatment with steroids or, less commonly, localized radiation therapy should be considered. Because preoperative treatment may affect the ability to obtain an accurate tissue diagnosis, a diagnostic biopsy should be obtained as soon as the risk of general anesthesia or heavy sedation is reduced.
Tumor lysis syndrome
Tumor lysis syndrome results from rapid breakdown of malignant cells, causing a number of metabolic abnormalities, most notably hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Tumor lysis syndrome may present before the start of therapy.
Hyperhydration and allopurinol or rasburicase (urate oxidase) are essential components of therapy in all patients, except those with the most limited disease.[18,19,20,21,22,23] In patients with G6PD deficiency, rasburicase may cause hemolysis or methemoglobinuria. An initial prephase consisting of low-dose cyclophosphamide and vincristine does not obviate the need for allopurinol or rasburicase and hydration.
Hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome, particularly when associated with ureteral obstruction, frequently result in life-threatening complications.
Although the use of positron emission tomography (PET) to assess rapidity of response to therapy appears to have prognostic value in Hodgkin lymphoma and some types of NHL observed in adult patients, it remains under investigation in pediatric NHL. To date, there are insufficient data in pediatric NHL to support that early response to therapy assessed by PET has prognostic value.
Diagnosing relapsed disease based solely on imaging requires caution because false-positive results are common.[24,25,26,27] There are also data demonstrating that PET scanning can produce false-negative results. A study of young adults with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma demonstrated that among 12 patients who had residual mediastinal masses at the end of therapy, 9 of the 12 had positive PET scans. Seven of these nine patients had the masses resected, but no viable tumor was found. Before undertaking changes in therapy based on residual masses noted by imaging, a biopsy to prove residual disease is warranted.
Burkitt and Burkitt-like Lymphoma/Leukemia
Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia in the United States accounts for about 40% of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and exhibits a consistent, aggressive clinical behavior.[1,2,3] The overall incidence of Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia in the United States is 2.5 cases per 1 million person-years and is higher among boys than girls (3.9 vs. 1.1).[2,4] (Refer to Table 1 for more information on the incidence of Burkitt lymphoma by age and gender distribution.)
The malignant cells show a mature B-cell phenotype and are negative for the enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. These malignant cells usually express surface immunoglobulin, most bearing a clonal surface immunoglobulin M with either kappa or lambda light chains. A variety of additional B-cell markers (e.g., CD19, CD20, CD22) are usually present, and most childhood Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia express CALLA (CD10).
Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia expresses a characteristic chromosomal translocation, usually t(8;14) and more rarely t(8;22) or t(2;8). Each of these translocations juxtaposes the c-myc oncogene and immunoglobulin locus regulatory elements, resulting in the inappropriate expression of c-myc, a gene involved in cellular proliferation.[3,5,6] The presence of one of the variant translocations t(2;8) or t(8;22) does not appear to affect response or outcome.
The distinction between Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia is controversial. Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia consists of uniform, small, noncleaved cells, whereas the diagnosis of Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia is highly disputed among pathologists because of features that are consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Cytogenetic evidence of c-myc rearrangement is the gold standard for diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia. For cases in which cytogenetic analysis is not available, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that the Burkitt-like diagnosis be reserved for lymphoma resembling Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia or with more pleomorphism, large cells, and a proliferation fraction (i.e., MIB-1 or Ki-67 immunostaining) of 99% or greater.
Studies have demonstrated that the vast majority of Burkitt-like or atypical Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia has a gene expression signature similar to Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia.[9,10] Additionally, as many as 30% of pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases will have a gene signature similar to Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia.[9,11]
The most common primary sites of disease are the abdomen and the lymphatic tissue of Waldeyer ring.[3,4] Other sites of involvement include testes, bone, skin, bone marrow, and central nervous system (CNS). While lung involvement does not tend to occur, pleural and peritoneal spread is seen.
Refer to the Prognosis and Prognostic Factors for Childhood NHL section of this summary for information on prognostic factors for Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia.
Standard treatment options for Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia
The treatment of Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia is the same as treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The following discussion is pertinent to the treatment of both types of childhood NHL.
Unlike mature B-lineage NHL seen in adults, there is no difference in outcome based on histology (Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). Pediatric Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are clinically very aggressive and are treated with very intensive regimens.[12,13,14,15,16]
Tumor lysis syndrome is often present at diagnosis or after initiation of treatment. This emergent clinical situation should be anticipated and addressed before treatment is started. (Refer to the Tumor lysis syndrome section in the Treatment Option Overview for Childhood NHL section of this summary for more information.)
Current treatment strategies are based on risk stratification as described in Table 4. Involvement of the bone marrow may lead to confusion as to whether the patient has lymphoma or leukemia. Traditionally, patients with more than 25% marrow blasts are classified as having mature B-cell leukemia, and those with fewer than 25% marrow blasts are classified as having lymphoma. It is not clear whether these arbitrary definitions are biologically distinct, but there is no question that patients with Burkitt leukemia should be treated with protocols designed for Burkitt leukemia.[12,14]
The following studies have contributed to the development of current treatment regimens for pediatric Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Both the BFM and FAB/LMB studies demonstrated that omission of craniospinal irradiation, even in patients presenting with CNS disease, does not affect outcome (COG-C5961 [FAB/LMB-96] and NHL-BFM-90 [GER-GPOH-NHL-BFM-90]).[12,13,14,18]
Rituximab is a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting the CD20 antigen. Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma both express high levels of CD20. Rituximab has been safely combined with standard doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy and has been shown to improve outcome in a randomized trial of adults with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (CAN-NCIC-LY9). In children, a single-agent phase II study of rituximab performed by the BFM group showed activity in Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia.[Level of evidence: 2Div] A Children's Oncology Group (COG) pilot study (COG-ANHL01P1) added rituximab to baseline chemotherapy with FAB/LMB-96 therapy in patients with stage III and stage IV B-cell NHL. Compared with chemotherapy-only protocols, toxicity was similar, despite a trend toward higher peak rituximab levels in younger patients.; [Level of evidence: 3iiiA] The contribution of rituximab in pediatric B-cell lymphoma is being evaluated in an international randomized phase III trial.
Standard treatment options for Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are described in Table 5.
Treatment options for recurrent Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia
There is no standard treatment option for patients with recurrent or progressive disease.
Treatment options for recurrent Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma include the following:
For recurrent or refractory B-lineage NHL, survival is generally 10% to 20%.[14,28,29,30,31] Chemoresistance makes remission difficult to achieve.
Evidence (rituximab therapy):
If remission can be achieved, high-dose therapy and SCT remains the best option for survival. However, the benefit of autologous versus allogeneic SCT is unclear.[26,30,33,34]; [Level of evidence: 2A]; [Level of evidence: 3iiiDii]
Patients not in remission at time of transplant do significantly worse.[26,35] The very poor outcome of patients whose disease is refractory to salvage chemotherapy suggests that a transplant option should not be pursued in these patients.
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Childhood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for more information about transplantation).
Evidence (SCT therapy):
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia include the following:
Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI website.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood Burkitt lymphoma, stage I childhood small noncleaved cell lymphoma, stage II childhood small noncleaved cell lymphoma, stage III childhood small noncleaved cell lymphoma, stage IV childhood small noncleaved cell lymphoma and recurrent childhood small noncleaved cell lymphoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma
Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, previously considered a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, is now a separate entity in the most recent WHO classification. (Refer to the Primary Mediastinal B-cell Lymphoma section of this summary for more information.)
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a mature B-cell neoplasm that represents 10% to 20% of pediatric NHL.[2,3,38] Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma occurs more frequently during the second decade of life than during the first decade.[2,39] (Refer to Table 1 for more information on the incidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by age and gender distribution.)
The WHO classification system does not recommend subclassification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on morphologic variants (e.g., immunoblastic, centroblastic).
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents differs biologically from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in adults in the following ways:
Pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma may present in a manner clinically similar to Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia, although it is more often localized and less often involves the bone marrow or CNS.[38,39,46] (Refer to the Clinical presentation section in the Burkitt and Burkitt-like Lymphoma/Leukemia section of this summary for more information.)
Refer to the Prognosis and Prognostic Factors for Childhood NHL section of this summary for information on prognostic factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Treatment options for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
As in Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia, current treatment strategies are based on risk stratification, as described in Table 4. The treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the same as the treatment of Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia. Refer to the Standard treatment options for Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia section of this summary for information on the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Treatment options for recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
The treatment of recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the same as treatment of recurrent Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia. Refer to the Treatment options for recurrent Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia section of this summary for more information.
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
The treatment options under clinical evaluation for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are the same as those for the treatment of Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia. Refer to the Treatment options under clinical evaluation for Burkitt and Burkitt-like lymphoma/leukemia section of this summary for more information.
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood diffuse large cell lymphoma, stage I childhood large cell lymphoma, stage II childhood large cell lymphoma, stage III childhood large cell lymphoma, stage IV childhood large cell lymphoma and recurrent childhood large cell lymphoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
Primary Mediastinal B-cell Lymphoma
In the pediatric population, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma is predominantly seen in older adolescents, accounting for 1% to 2% of all pediatric NHL cases.[39,47,48,49]
Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma was previously considered a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but is now a separate entity in the most recent WHO classification. These tumors arise in the mediastinum from thymic B-cells and show a diffuse large cell proliferation with sclerosis that compartmentalizes neoplastic cells.
Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma can be very difficult to distinguish morphologically from the following types of lymphoma:
Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma is associated with distinctive chromosomal aberrations (gains in chromosome 9p and 2p in regions that involve JAK2 and c-rel, respectively) [48,49] and commonly shows inactivation of SOCS1 by either mutation or gene deletion.[51,52] Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma has a distinctly different gene expression profile from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but its gene expression profile has features similar to those seen in Hodgkin lymphoma.[53,54]
As the name would suggest, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma occurs in the mediastinum. The tumor can be locally invasive (e.g., pericardial and lung extension) and can be associated with the superior vena caval syndrome. The tumor can disseminate outside the thoracic cavity with nodal and extranodal involvement, with predilection to the kidneys; however, CNS and marrow involvement are exceedingly rare.
Refer to the Prognosis and Prognostic Factors for Childhood NHL section of this summary for information on prognostic factors for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.
Treatment options for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
Treatment options for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma include the following:
Pediatric and adolescent patients with stage III primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma did significantly worse on the FAB/LMB-96 (NCT00002757) study, with a 5-year EFS of 66% compared with 85% for adolescents with nonmediastinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.[Level of evidence: 2A] Similarly on NHL-BFM-95, patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma had an EFS of 50% at 3 years. However, a study of young adults treated with DA-EPOCH-R showed excellent disease-free survival.
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma include the following:
Lymphoblastic lymphoma comprises approximately 20% of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).[1,2,3] (Refer to Table 1 for more information on the incidence of lymphoblastic lymphoma by age and gender distribution.)
Lymphoblastic lymphomas are usually positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, with more than 75% having a T-cell immunophenotype and the remainder having a precursor B-cell phenotype.[3,4]
As opposed to pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chromosomal abnormalities and the molecular biology of pediatric lymphoblastic lymphoma are not well characterized. The Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) group reported that loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 6q was observed in 12% of patients and NOTCH1 mutations were seen in 60% of patients, but NOTCH1 mutations are rarely seen in patients with loss of heterozygosity in 6q16.[5,6]
As many as 75% of patients with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma will present with an anterior mediastinal mass, which may manifest as dyspnea, wheezing, stridor, dysphagia, or swelling of the head and neck.
Pleural and/or pericardial effusions may be present, and the involvement of lymph nodes, usually above the diaphragm, may be a prominent feature. There may also be involvement of bone, skin, bone marrow, central nervous system (CNS), abdominal organs (but rarely bowel), and occasionally other sites, such as lymphoid tissue of Waldeyer ring, testes, bone, or subcutaneous tissue. Abdominal involvement is less than what is observed in Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia.
Involvement of the bone marrow may lead to confusion as to whether the patient has lymphoma with bone marrow involvement or leukemia with extramedullary disease. Traditionally, patients with more than 25% marrow blasts are considered to have T-cell ALL, and those with fewer than 25% marrow blasts are considered to have stage IV T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies lymphoblastic lymphoma as the same disease as ALL. The debate remains as to whether they truly represent the same disease. It is not yet clear whether these arbitrary definitions are biologically distinct or relevant for treatment design.
Refer to the Prognosis and Prognostic Factors for Childhood NHL section of this summary for information on prognostic factors for lymphoblastic lymphoma.
Standard Treatment Options for Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
Current data do not suggest superiority for the following treatment options.
Standard treatment options for lymphoblastic lymphoma include the following:
Equivalent outcome was observed for arms A1, B1, A2, and B2.
Patients with low-stage (stage I or stage II) lymphoblastic lymphoma have long-term disease-free survival (DFS) rates of about 60% with short, pulsed chemotherapy followed by 6 months of maintenance, with an overall survival (OS) greater than 90%.[12,13] However, with the use of an ALL approach and induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapy for a total of 24 months, DFS rates higher than 90% have been reported for children with low-stage lymphoblastic lymphoma.[9,10,11]
Patients with high-stage (stage III or stage IV) lymphoblastic lymphoma have long-term survival rates higher than 80%.[8,9,10] Mediastinal radiation is not necessary for patients with mediastinal masses, except in the emergency treatment of symptomatic superior vena caval obstruction or airway obstruction. In these cases, either corticosteroid therapy or low-dose radiation is usually employed. (Refer to the Mediastinal masses section of the Treatment Option Overview for Childhood NHL section of this summary for more information.)
Evidence (high-stage treatment regimens for lymphoblastic lymphoma):
The Pediatric Oncology Group conducted a trial to test the effectiveness of the addition of high-dose methotrexate in T-cell ALL and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. In the lymphoma patients, high-dose methotrexate did not demonstrate benefit. In the small cohort (n = 66) of lymphoma patients who did not receive high-dose methotrexate, the 5-year EFS was 88%.[Level of evidence: 1iiA] Of note, all of these patients received prophylactic craniospinal radiation therapy, which has been demonstrated not to be required in T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma patients.[8,10]
In addition to the NHL-BFM-95 trial, a single-center study reported that patients treated for lymphoblastic lymphoma had a higher incidence of subsequent neoplasms than did patients treated for other pediatric NHL. However, studies from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Group do not support this finding.[8,16,17]
Treatment Options for Recurrent Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
For recurrent or refractory lymphoblastic lymphoma, reports of survival range from 10% to 40%.[16,18]; [19,20][Level of evidence: 3iiiA] As with Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia, chemoresistant disease is common.
There are no standard treatment options for patients with recurrent or progressive disease.
Treatment options for recurrent lymphoblastic lymphoma include the following:
Evidence (treatment of recurrent lymphoblastic lymphoma):
Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for lymphoblastic lymphoma include the following:
This trial subdivides standard-risk patients into two groups: low risk and average risk. Low risk is defined as the presence of all of the following: NCI-standard risk age/white blood cell count, favorable genetics (e.g., double trisomies or ETV6-RUNX1), CNS1 at presentation, and low MRD (<0.01% by flow cytometry) at day 8 (peripheral blood) and day 29 (marrow). Average risk includes other NCI standard-risk patients excluding those with high day 29 MRD morphologic induction failure or other unfavorable presenting features (e.g., CNS3, iAMP21, low hypodiploidy, MLL translocations, and BCR-ABL).
All patients will receive a three-drug induction (dexamethasone, vincristine, and intravenous [IV] PEG-L-asparaginase) with intrathecal chemotherapy. For postinduction therapy, low-risk patients will be randomly assigned to receive one of the following:
The objective is not to prove superiority of either regimen, but rather, to determine whether excellent outcomes (at least 95% 5-year DFS) can be achieved.
All average-risk patients will receive a modified BFM backbone as postinduction treatment. For these patients, the study is comparing, in a randomized fashion, two doses of weekly oral methotrexate during the maintenance phase (20 mg/m2 and 40 mg/m2) to determine whether the higher dose favorably impacts DFS. Average-risk patients are also eligible to participate in a randomized comparison of two schedules of vincristine/dexamethasone pulses during maintenance (delivered every 4 weeks or every 12 weeks). The objective of this randomization is to determine whether vincristine/dexamethasone pulses can be delivered less frequently without adversely impacting outcome.
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma, stage II childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma, stage III childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma, stage IV childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma and recurrent childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma accounts for approximately 10% of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cases. (Refer to Table 1 for more information on the incidence of anaplastic large cell lymphoma by age and gender distribution.)
While the predominant immunophenotype of anaplastic large cell lymphoma is mature T-cell, null-cell disease (i.e., no T-cell, B-cell, or natural killer [NK]-cell surface antigen expression) does occur. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies anaplastic large cell lymphoma as a subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
All anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases are CD30-positive. More than 90% of pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma cases have a chromosomal rearrangement involving the ALK gene. About 85% of these chromosomal rearrangements will be t(2;5)(p23;q35), leading to the expression of the fusion protein NPM-ALK; the other 15% of cases are comprised of variant ALK translocations. Anti-ALK immunohistochemical staining pattern is quite specific for the type of ALK translocation. Cytoplasm and nuclear ALK staining is associated with NPM-ALK fusion protein, whereas cytoplasmic staining only of ALK is associated with the variant ALK translocations.
In adults, ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is viewed differently from other peripheral T-cell lymphomas because prognosis tends to be superior. Also, adult ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma patients have an inferior outcome compared with patients who have ALK-positive disease. In children, however, this difference in outcome between ALK-positive and ALK-negative disease has not been demonstrated. In addition, no correlation has been found between outcome and the specific ALK-translocation type.[6,7,8]
In a European series of 375 children and adolescents with systemic ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, the presence of a small cell or lymphohistiocytic component was observed in 32% of patients and was significantly associated with a high risk of failure in the multivariate analysis, controlling for clinical characteristics (hazard ratio, 2.0; P = .002). The prognostic implication of the small cell variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma was also shown in the COG-ANHL0131 (NCT00059839) study, despite a different chemotherapy backbone.
Clinically, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma has a broad range of presentations. These include involvement of lymph nodes and a variety of extranodal sites, particularly skin and bone and, less often, gastrointestinal tract, lung, pleura, and muscle. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) and bone marrow is uncommon.
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is often associated with systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, weight loss) and a prolonged waxing and waning course, making diagnosis difficult and often delayed. Patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma may present with signs and symptoms consistent with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
There is a subgroup of anaplastic large cell lymphoma with leukemic peripheral blood involvement. These patients usually exhibit significant respiratory distress with diffuse lung infiltrates or pleural effusions and have hepatosplenomegaly.[10,11]
Refer to the Prognosis and Prognostic Factors for Childhood NHL section of this summary for information on prognostic factors for anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Standard Treatment Options for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Children and adolescents with high-stage (stage III or IV) anaplastic large cell lymphoma have a disease-free survival of approximately 60% to 75%.[12,13,14,15,16,17]
It is unclear which treatment strategy is best for anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Current data do not suggest superiority of one treatment regimen over another for these standard treatment options.
Commonly used treatment regimens include the following:
Evidence (treatment of anaplastic large cell lymphoma):
CNS involvement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma is rare at diagnosis. In an international study of systemic childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma, 12 of 463 patients (2.6%) had CNS involvement, three of whom had isolated CNS disease (primary CNS lymphoma). For the CNS-positive group who received multiagent chemotherapy, including high-dose methotrexate, cytarabine, and intrathecal treatment, at a median follow-up of 4.1 years, the EFS was 50% (95% confidence interval, 25%–75%) and OS was 74% (45%–91%). The role of cranial radiation therapy has been difficult to assess.
Treatment Options for Recurrent Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
As opposed to mature B-cell or lymphoblastic lymphoma, the prognosis for recurrent or refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma is 40% to 60%.[24,25,26]
There is no standard approach for the treatment of recurrent/refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Treatment options for recurrent anaplastic large cell lymphoma include the following:
Chemotherapy, followed by autologous SCT or allogeneic SCT if remission can be achieved, has been employed in this setting.[25,26,30,31]
Evidence (autologous vs. allogeneic SCT):
Vinblastine is active as a single agent in recurrent/refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma; it induced complete remission (CR) in 25 of 30 evaluable patients (83%) in one study. Nine of 25 patients treated with vinblastine alone remained in CR, with median follow-up of 7 years since the end of treatment.[Level of evidence: 3iiiA]
Crizotinib, a kinase inhibitor that blocks the activity of the NPM-ALK fusion protein, has been evaluated in children and adults with relapsed/refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Seven of nine children with anaplastic large cell lymphoma treated on the pediatric phase I study of crizotinib achieved complete responses.
Brentuximab vedotin has been evaluated in adults with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. A phase II study of adults and adolescents with CD30-positive cancers that administered a dose of 1.8 mg/kg of brentuximab vedotin showed CR rates of approximately 55% to 60% and partial remission rates of 29%.
Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for anaplastic large cell lymphoma include the following:
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma, stage II childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma, stage III childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma, stage IV childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma and recurrent childhood anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
The incidence of lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma is 100-fold higher in immunocompromised children than in the general population. The cause of such immune deficiencies includes the following:
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with immunodeficiency is usually aggressive, with most cases occurring in extralymphatic sites and a higher incidence of primary central nervous system (CNS) involvement.[1,2,3,4]
Lymphoproliferative Disease Associated With Primary Immunodeficiency
Lymphoproliferative disease observed in primary immunodeficiency usually shows a mature B-cell phenotype and large cell histology. Mature T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma have been observed. Children with primary immunodeficiency and NHL are more likely to have high-stage disease and present with symptoms related to extranodal disease, particularly the gastrointestinal tract and CNS.
Treatment options for lymphoproliferative disease associated with primary immunodeficiency
Treatment options for lymphoproliferative disease associated with primary immunodeficiency include the following:
Patients with primary immunodeficiency can achieve complete and durable remissions with standard chemotherapy regimens for NHL, although toxicity is increased. Recurrences in these patients are common and may not represent the same clonal disease. Immunologic correction through allogeneic SCT is often required to prevent recurrences.
Patients with DNA repair defects (e.g., ataxia-telangiectasia) are particularly difficult to treat.[6,7] Cytotoxic agents produce much more toxicity and greatly increase the risk of subsequent neoplasms in these patients. A Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster retrospective study showed the 10-year overall survival rate to be 58% in 38 children with ataxia telangiectasia or Nijmegen-breakage syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 9), NHL (n = 28), and Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1). Dosage-reduction of chemotherapeutic drugs was effective and reduced toxic side effects, but did not prevent subsequent neoplasms (10-year incidence, 25%).
NHL in children with HIV often presents with fever, weight loss, and symptoms related to extranodal disease, such as abdominal pain or CNS symptoms. Most childhood HIV-related NHL is of mature B-cell phenotype but with a spectrum, including primary effusion lymphoma, primary CNS lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.[9,10]
HIV-associated NHL can be broadly grouped into the following three subcategories:
Highly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the incidence of NHL in HIV-positive individuals, particularly for primary CNS lymphoma cases.[12,13]
Treatment options for HIV-associated NHL
Treatment options for HIV-associated NHL include the following:
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, children with HIV and NHL are treated with standard chemotherapy regimens for NHL, but careful attention to prophylaxis against and early detection of infection is warranted.[1,12,13] Treatment of recurrent disease is based on histology using standard approaches.
Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disease (PTLD)
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) represents a spectrum of clinically and morphologically heterogeneous lymphoid proliferations. Essentially all PTLD after HSCT is associated with EBV, but EBV-negative PTLD can be seen following solid organ transplant. While most posttransplant lymphoproliferative diseases are of B-cell phenotype, approximately 10% are mature (peripheral) T-cell lymphomas. The B-cell stimulation by EBV may result in multiple clones of proliferating B cells, and both polymorphic and monomorphic histologies may be present in a patient, even within the same lesion of PTLD. Thus, histology of a single biopsied site may not be representative of the entire disease process.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified PTLD into the following three subtypes:
EBV lymphoproliferative disease posttransplant may manifest as isolated hepatitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis, meningoencephalitis, or an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome. The definition of PTLD is frequently limited to lymphomatous lesions (low stage or high stage), which are often extranodal (frequently in the allograft). Although less common, PTLD may present as a rapidly progressive, high-stage disease that clinically resembles septic shock, which has a poor prognosis; however, the use of rituximab and low-dose chemotherapy may improve the outcome.[15,16]
Treatment options for PTLD
Treatment options for PTLD include the following:
First-line therapy for PTLD is to reduce immunosuppressive therapy as much as possible.[21,22] However, this may not be possible because of the increased risk for organ rejection or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
Rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, has been used in the posttransplant setting. In a study of 144 children and adults who developed post-HSCT PTLD, it was reported that approximately 70% of patients who received rituximab survived. Survival was associated with reduction of immunosuppression as well, but older age, extranodal disease, and acute graft-versus-host disease were predictors of poor outcome.[Level of evidence: 3iiiA] Rituximab as a single agent to treat PTLD after organ transplant has demonstrated efficacy in adult patients, but data are lacking in pediatric patients.
Low-intensity chemotherapy has been effective in EBV-positive, CD20-positive B-lineage PTLD. A Children's Oncology Group study using rituximab plus cyclophosphamide and prednisone in children with PTLD after solid organ transplantation in whom immune suppression was reduced demonstrated a 67% event-free survival.[Level of evidence: 2A] Other studies suggest that modified conventional lymphoma therapy is effective for PTLD with c-myc translocations and Burkitt histology.[19,20][Level of evidence: 3iiDiii] Patients with T-cell or Hodgkin-like PTLD are usually treated with standard lymphoma-specific chemotherapy regimens.[23,24,25,26]
Anti-rejection therapy is usually decreased or discontinued when chemotherapy is given to avoid excessive toxicity. There are no data to guide the re-initiation of immunosuppressive therapy after chemotherapy treatment. There is little evidence of benefit for chemotherapy following SCT.
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for PTLD
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for lymphoproliferative disease associated with PTLD include the following:
Low-grade or intermediate-grade mature B-cell lymphomas, such as small lymphocytic lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, myeloma, or follicular cell lymphoma, are rarely seen in children. The most recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification has identified pediatric follicular lymphoma and pediatric nodal marginal zone lymphoma as entities separate from their adult counterparts.
In an attempt to learn more about the clinical and pathologic features of these rare types of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the Children's Oncology Group (COG) has opened a registry study (COG-ANHL04B1). This study banks tissue for pathobiology studies and collects limited data on clinical presentation and outcome of therapy.
Pediatric Follicular Lymphoma
Pediatric follicular lymphoma is a disease that genetically and clinically differs from its adult counterpart. The genetic hallmark of adult follicular lymphoma, the translocation of t(14;18)(q32;q21) involving BCL2, is typically not detectable in pediatric follicular lymphoma.[2,3,4] Molecular alterations observed in pediatric follicular lymphoma include translocations of the immunoglobulin locus and IRF4, losses of regions of chromosome 1p, and mutations of TNFSFR14 on chromosome 1p.[5,6]
Pediatric follicular lymphoma predominantly occurs in males, is associated with a high proliferation rate, and is more likely to be localized disease. In pediatric follicular lymphoma, a high-grade component (i.e., grade 3) resembling diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can frequently be detected at initial diagnosis but does not indicate a more aggressive clinical course in children.[2,4,8] Cervical lymph nodes and tonsils are common sites, but disease has also occurred in extranodal sites such as the testis, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and parotid.[2,3,4,8,9,10]
Treatment options for pediatric follicular lymphoma
Follicular lymphoma is rare in children, with only case reports and case series to guide therapy. The outcome of pediatric follicular lymphoma is excellent, with an event-free survival (EFS) of about 95%.[2,4,7,8,10] In contrast to adult follicular lymphoma, the clinical course is not dominated by relapses.[2,4,8,9]
Treatment options for pediatric follicular lymphoma include the following:
For pediatric patients, it appears that BCL2 rearrangement negativity and a high proliferative index predict favorable disease. In these patients, surgical resection with no further treatment is sufficient for completely resected, localized disease. For patients with BCL2-rearranged tumors, treatment similar to that of adult patients with follicular lymphoma is administered (refer to the PDQ summary on Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment for more information).
One study suggested that for children with stage I disease who had a complete resection, a watch and wait approach without chemotherapy may be indicated. Patients with higher-stage disease also had a favorable outcome with low-intensity and intermediate-intensity chemotherapy, with 94% EFS and 100% overall survival (OS) with a 2-year median follow-up.
Marginal Zone Lymphoma
Marginal zone lymphoma is a type of indolent lymphoma that is rare in pediatric patients. Marginal zone lymphoma can present as nodal or extranodal disease and almost always as low-stage (stage I or stage II) disease. It is unclear whether the marginal zone lymphoma that is observed in pediatric patients is clinicopathologically different from the disease that is observed in adults. Most extranodal marginal zone lymphoma in pediatrics presents as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and may be associated with Helicobacter pylori (gastrointestinal) or chlamydial psittaci (conjunctival).[11,12]
Treatment options for marginal zone lymphoma
Treatment options for marginal zone lymphoma include the following:
Most pediatric MALT lymphomas require no more than local therapy involving curative surgery and/or radiation therapy.[11,14] Treatment of MALT lymphoma may also include antibiotic therapy which is considered standard treatment in adults. However, the use of antibiotic therapy in children has not been well studied because there are so few cases.
Intralesional interferon-alpha for conjunctival MALT lymphoma has been described.
Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma
Other types of NHL that may be rare in adults and are exceedingly rare in pediatric patients include primary CNS lymphoma. Because of small numbers of patients, it is difficult to ascertain whether the disease observed in children is the same as the disease observed in adults and determine optimal therapy.
Reports suggest that the outcome of pediatric patients with primary CNS lymphoma (OS, 70%–80%) may be superior to that of adults with primary CNS lymphoma. These reports suggest that long-term survival can be achieved without cranial irradiation.[16,17,18,19]
Most children have diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, although other histologies can be observed.
Treatment options for primary CNS lymphoma
Treatment options for primary CNS lymphoma include the following:
Therapy with high-dose intravenous methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside is the most successful, and intrathecal chemotherapy may be needed only when malignant cells are present in the cerebrospinal fluid.
There is a case report of repeated doses of rituximab, both intravenous and intraventricular, being administered to a 14-year-old boy with refractory primary CNS lymphoma, with an excellent result. This apparently good outcome needs to be confirmed, and similar results have not been observed in adults. It is generally believed that rituximab does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment for more information on treatment options for nonacquired immunodeficiency syndrome–related primary CNS lymphoma.)
Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, excluding anaplastic large cell lymphoma, is rare in children.
Mature T-cell/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma or peripheral T-cell lymphoma has a postthymic phenotype (e.g., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase negative), usually expresses CD4 or CD8, and has rearrangement of T-cell receptor genes, either alpha-beta and/or gamma-delta chains. The most common phenotype observed in children is peripheral T-cell lymphoma–not otherwise specified, although angioimmunoblastic lymphoma, enteropathy-associated lymphoma (associated with celiac disease), subcutaneous panniculitis-like lymphoma, angiocentric lymphoma, and extranodal NK/T-cell peripheral T-cell lymphoma have been reported.[21,22,23,24]
A Japanese study described extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type as the most common peripheral T-cell lymphoma subtype among Japanese children (10 of 21 peripheral T-cell lymphoma cases). In adults, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type is generally Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive, and 60% of the cases observed in Japanese children were EBV-positive.
Although very rare, gamma-delta hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma may be seen in children. This tumor has also been associated with children and adolescents who have Crohn disease and have been treated with immunosuppressive therapy; this lymphoma has been fatal in all cases.
Treatment options for peripheral T-cell lymphoma
Optimal therapy for peripheral T-cell lymphoma is unclear for both pediatric and adult patients.
Treatment options for peripheral T-cell lymphoma include the following:
There have been four retrospective analyses of treatment and outcome for pediatric patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The studies have reported the following:
Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma
Primary cutaneous lymphomas are very rare in pediatric patients (1 case per 1 million person-years), but the incidence increases in adolescents and young adults. All histologies of NHL have been observed to involve the skin. Over 80% are of T-cell or NK-cell phenotype.
There are very limited data on the best therapeutic approach to the treatment of primary cutaneous lymphoma in the pediatric population. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma presents a particular problem. The diagnosis can be difficult to distinguish pathologically from more benign diseases such as lymphomatoid papulosis. Primary cutaneous lymphomas are now thought to represent a spectrum of disorders, distinguished by clinical presentation.
Mycosis fungoides is rarely reported in children and adolescents,[29,30,31] and it accounts for about 2% of all cases. Patients present with low-stage disease, and it appears that the hypopigmented, CD8-positive variant of mycosis fungoides is more common in children than in adults.
Treatment options for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Because of the rarity of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, no standard treatments have been established.
Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma usually does not express ALK and may be treated successfully with surgical resection and/or local radiation therapy without systemic chemotherapy. There are reports of surgery alone also being curative for ALK-positive cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, but extensive staging and vigilant follow-up is required.[34,35]
An oral retinoid (bexarotene) has been reported to be active against subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphomas and cutaneous gamma-delta T-cell lymphomas in a series of 15 patients from three institutions. In general, however, the optimal therapy for non–anaplastic large cell lymphoma cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in childhood is unclear.
Mycosis fungoides occurring in pediatric patients may respond to various therapies, including topical steroids, retinoids, radiation therapy, or phototherapy (e.g., narrow-band ultraviolet B treatment), but remission may not be durable.[32,37,38,39]
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
General Information About Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
Added text to state that international pediatric NHL response criteria have been proposed and require prospective evaluation; however, the clinical utility of these new criteria are under clinical investigation (cited Sandlund et al. as reference 20).
Stage Information for Childhood NHL
Added text to state that a new staging system defines bone marrow and central nervous system (CNS) involvement using modern techniques to document the presence of malignant cells. However, the basic definitions of bone marrow and CNS disease are essentially the same. The clinical utility of this new staging system is under investigation (cited Rosolen et al. as reference 2).
Treatment Option Overview for Childhood NHL
Added Bhojwani et al. as reference 27.
Mature B-cell NHL
Added text about a study from the United Kingdom for children with relapsed or refractory mature B-cell NHL and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia that showed the most favorable outcomes for those who received rituximab and autologous stem cell transplantation (cited Anoop et al. as reference 32).
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Added Fukano et al. as reference 32.
Rare NHL Occurring in Children
The Marginal Zone Lymphoma subsection was extensively revised.
Added text about a study from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster group that reported on the treatment of 38 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (cited Kontny et al. as reference 24 and level of evidence 3iiiDiii).
Added text about the incidence and characteristics of pediatric mycosis fungoides (cited Kim et al., Hodak et al., Castano et al., and Boulos et al. as references 29, 30, 31, and 32, respectively).
Added text to state that mycosis fungoides occurring in pediatric patients may respond to various therapies, including topical steroids, retinoids, radiation therapy, or phototherapy, but remission may not be durable (cited Koh et al., Laws et al., and Heng et al. as references 37, 38, and 39, respectively).
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Purpose of This Summary
This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.
Reviewers and Updates
This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:
Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which Board members evaluate the strength of the evidence in the published articles and determine how the article should be included in the summary.
The lead reviewers for Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment are:
Any comments or questions about the summary content should be submitted to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. Do not contact the individual Board Members with questions or comments about the summaries. Board members will not respond to individual inquiries.
Levels of Evidence
Some of the reference citations in this summary are accompanied by a level-of-evidence designation. These designations are intended to help readers assess the strength of the evidence supporting the use of specific interventions or approaches. The PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board uses a formal evidence ranking system in developing its level-of-evidence designations.
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National Cancer Institute: PDQ® Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified <MM/DD/YYYY>. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/lymphoma/hp/child-nhl-treatment-pdq. Accessed <MM/DD/YYYY>.
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